In March 1965 after the assassination of Malcolm X, LeRoi Jones moved from Manhattan's Lower East Side uptown to Harlem, who considered being the starter of the Black Arts movement. Jones was a great publisher, a famous poet, a major music detractor, and an Obie Award-winning playwright. Also, Jones was the most respected and most widely published Black writer of his generation.
When Jones moved uptown to found the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School “BARTS”, which is the formal beginning of Black Arts. This literary movement had its connections with groups such as the Umbra Workshop. Umbra was a group of young Black writers in Manhattan's Lower East Side. Umbra, which produced Umbra Magazine, was the first post-civil right Black literary group to make an impact and make their voice spread.